Шекспир трагедиясының басталуы
Scientific work on the topic:
The beginning of the tragic Shakespeare
prepared by/дайындаған :
1.The life and creations of Shakespeare ……….……………………………………………………………………………7
2.Genius of Shakespeare………………………………………………………10
3.Pecularities of Shakespeare’s tragedies in literature……………………………………………………………………….16
3.1 characteristics of “Romeo and Juliet”………………………………………………………………………….12
3.2 The place of “King lear” in Shakeaspeare ‘ s tragedies……………………………………………………………………….18
Shakespeare was the greatest playwright — writer in England. His work — the top of the literature of the Renaissance.
Great playwright spoke of the eternal and unchanging — the person, so it is always in demand and relevant audience. World’s best theaters and actors considered it an honor and happiness to play a Shakespearean play. His plays concerned and stagger the imagination of viewers.
Scientists question the authenticity of Shakespeare’s plays, display of who in reality was their creator. But who was he to was, this man is very gifted. He raised to new heights the art of image, the disclosure of human feelings and passions.
The language of his tragedies is exceptionally rich and colorful. In his plays, Renaissance ideas expressed and portrayed their clash with the harsh reality. In them is the theme of the death of heroes, especially dear to him, embodying the light humanistic ideas.
Shakespeare — a genius, has done so much more than anyone else for the development of English theater. His works have become classics of world literature.
The life and creations of SHAKESPEARE
By more than three centuries ago, tragedy, historical chronicles and Shakespeare still live, excite and amaze the imagination of the audience. The best theaters of the world, and outstanding actors feel they have to put the exam and happiness and to play a Shakespearean play.
Seeing such a performance, or just reading a Shakespeare play, you’ll want to probably find out about who created these works. But it is not so simple.
Long before Shakespeare’s England roads met busker who put their farces, pieces of mysteries, morality in the yard and other places. As the actors came under harsh law of strollers, they began to beg for the right to call the nobility of their servants.
Elizabeth’s government feared epidemics, prohibited to build facilities for the national theater in the city. In the urban area, on private land preserved only privileged theaters. Of course, there was a constant and Court Theater with their traditions. The actor troupe folk theater was no more than 12-14 people men of different ages: just an actor and shareholders, who owned half of the revenue; they built a theater on their account, pay for costumes, plays, etc. The rest of the profit was divided between the actors of employment on an equal share.
The actors — shareholders began to build a theater building for the type of hotel courtyard where itinerant troupe played with great «comfort». Buildings constructed in the form of a horseshoe, in which middle stage raised in a projection in a theater, and on each side — covered galleries in 2 — 3 levels (above the roof was not theater). Lodge behind the curtains along the ground floor and a room for the orchestra complement artless architecture of the theater. Ground floor and a table filled with the commoners, who are here walked, ate, smoked, drank and quickly express their emotions. On the galleries were higher prices and the public «cleaner». Lodge, where they often sat ladies in masks shot aristocrats. The theater did not know the scenery, so performances are without intermission, from 3 to 6 hours (poster on the street are notified in advance about the names of the plays). The main attention was paid to the viewers of the actor, in his suit (often very expensive) on his game. Although the theater has been a favorite kind of folk art, and admittedly lucrative, profession of an actor and playwright were Neuvazliayev and even shameful.
About the life of the great playwright remained little information. Shakespeare did not write memoirs, and kept no diary. We do not have his correspondence with his contemporaries. Not preserved manuscripts of Shakespeare’s plays. It reached us only a few documents, which refer to the different circumstances of his life. Each of them, even if it is only a few words about Shakespeare, studied and interpreted. Rare historical values are those few scraps of paper on which is written by hand several lines of Shakespeare, or just worth his signature.
We had to put a lot of work, so that we can read now about Shakespeare is that he should know about it every educated person.
William Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564 English town Stratford, located River Avon. His father was an artisan and merchant. However, science can not recognize them quite reliable. When Shakespeare was a little more than 20 years, he had to suddenly leave Stratford. Young Shakespeare was poisoned in London.
Once in a strange city without money, without friends and acquaintances, he, according to popular legend, the first time earned a living, that kept watch at the theater, where nobles were coming. Later, Shakespeare began to serve in the theater. He saw to it that the actors come on stage on time, rewrote the role, it happened, replaced prompter. In short, long before the great playwright brought to the scene of his heroes, he learned hard behind the scenes life of the theater.
Several years have passed. Shakespeare began charging small roles in theater, later dubbed the «Globe», whose performances enjoyed success in London. Actor Shakespeare did not become, but his statements about the art of acting, and most importantly, a great skill in building the play shows the striking scenes knowledge of the laws.
However, Shakespeare wrote not only of the play. His poems — sonnets captivated his contemporaries and continue to delight the children the power of feelings, deep thoughts, elegance shape. Readers are especially good estimate of Shakespeare’s sonnets, thanks to excellent translations.
But the main thing for Shakespeare, a passion of his life was the work of the playwright, creating plays. Shakespeare’s great skill as a dramatist. The language of his tragedies is exceptionally rich and colorful. His drama takes pride of place in the repertory theaters around the world.
Exultant joy of life, the glorification of common, strong, brave, bright sensual, boldly thinking person — this is essential in the first plays of Shakespeare — comedies, «The Taming of the Shrew,» «The Comedy of Errors,» «Midsummer Night’s Dream,» «Much Ado About Nothing» «Twelfth night», written in 1593 — 1600 years. They express important for Renaissance thought: man should be judged not on the dress, not on knowledge, not on estate and wealth, and on behavior and personal qualities. It is hard to find in world drama play the same fantastic — cheerful, clear, magic, as the «Midsummer Night’s Dream.» Shakespeare’s poetic imagination gave birth to her fantastic, close to the folk tales images mustard seed, Cobweb, Moth. Their participation in the life of love leads to a happy ending.
But noble humanistic ideas of the Renaissance, was not destined to win in the fierce era. Shakespeare with bitterness it feels. In his later plays, too, expressed the ideas of the Renaissance, but the colors get darker pieces. He depicts the clash of beautiful Renaissance with severe activity. In the work of Shakespeare begins to sound the theme of the death of heroes, especially dear to him, embodying the light humanistic ideas.
Young Romeo and Juliet — the heroes of the first great tragedy of Shakespeare (1594) — passionately in love with each other. I love their encounters an insurmountable obstacle — an old feud families. In the unequal fight with old prejudices. With the bloody and senseless laws, Romeo and Juliet die. But their love, not accept the prejudices of antiquity, lies the high moral victory.
Genius of Shakespeare
Shakespeare’s plays were on the stage of London’s «Globe». This theater was like an open-air round the paddock. Stranger foreigner, who visited in 1599 the first performance of Shakespeare’s «Julius Caesar», called the theater «Globe», «thatched house» — he meant the roof over the stage. The name of the theater was the statue of Hercules, supporting shoulders globe.
After the production of «Julius Caesar» from 1601 to 1608. Shakespeare created the greatest tragedies: «Hamlet,» «King Lear», «Macbeth», «Othello».
Danish Prince Hamlet bitterly mourns the dead father. But then he learns with horror: he did not die, he was killed. Killer — the brother of the murdered uncle of Hamlet — not only inherited the throne of the late king, but also married his widow — mother of Hamlet.
Tragedy ruseet complex and difficult reflection noble man of the nature of evil, a vicious royal court, the lies, lurking in the palace walls, of diseases on the eyelids, as if «disjointed in their joints.» The great Russian critic VG Belinsky wrote about Hamlet: «It is the soul, born for good, and also the first time when she saw the evil in all its vileness.»
Loneliness of Hamlet — a lonely man who was ahead of his time, is with him in a tragic rift and so dies.
In recent years, Shakespeare (1608 — 1612), his plays take on a different character. They are removed from real life. They sound fantastic, fairy-tale motifs. But even in these pieces — «Pericles», «Winter’s Tale,» «The Tempest» — Shakespeare condemns tyranny and despotism, stands on a sewn ideals dear to him, glorifies the power of love, the faith of the people. Exclamation hero of one of the plays: «How wonderful humanity!» — may serve as a sign of the Renaissance gave the world Shakespeare.
Shakespeare — author of 37 plays, 2 poems and 154 sonnets, distinguished by hot feeling, rich life. Shakespeare is one of the peaks of the artistic culture of the Renaissance.
In 1612, «The Tempest» by Shakespeare wrote his last play. He soon left the theater. Perhaps Shakespeare suffered disappointment in the English theater, moving away from that great the way in which he led his. And maybe, in the years of silence, he hatched plans new brilliant creatures that never was destined to appear.
Shakespeare died in 1616, on the day when he was 52 years. He was buried in the church of his native Stratford, where hitherto come admirers of his talent from all over the world to pay homage to the tomb of the great playwright, visit the house where he lived to see his play in Stratforskom Memorial Theater, which put only Shakespeare.
Realism in art — a concept that characterizes cognitive function: the truth of life, embodied by specific means of art, a measure of its penetration into reality, depth and fullness of her art knowledge. This «movement in art, whose goal is to faithfully reproduce reality in its typical features.»
Shakespeare created a national drama and realism claiming discarded principles of composition, nature of construction, adopted in ancient drama. The playwright has never limited himself genre canons, when he wanted to express my life complete.
Goethe asserted that «the great foundation of» Shakespeare «is the truth and the life itself.» English playwright reproduce the truth of life through artistic and philosophical analysis of personality in its interaction with the history of society.
In the works of Shakespeare’s inspiration of love, its romantic side is combined with the strange, cranky passion, because it takes a person out of the ordinary rhythm of life, makes him «sick» ridiculous. Observation of reality allowed the playwright to create a true, life images and situations. For example, a passionate and impatient feeling Juliet, a young girl’s first experience love, comic encounters with the spoils of the nurse. Juliet requires highly experienced maid, so she quickly told about Romeo’s actions, and nurse it refers to bone pain, the fatigue, deliberately delaying message.
Shakespeare these characters are alive, with their flaws, tricks, outlook on life, views.
Truthfulness of images largely achieved with the help of detailed descriptions. For example, Romeo, thinking about the pharmacist sells poison sees his image and the image of his shop. Starving, emaciated man, turtle, hanging in his shop, stuffed alligator and ugly fish, etc. The psychological state of deep shock is characterized by just such excessive attention to detail.
Shakespeare mystery, of course, exist, but it is not a biographical mystery, but the mystery of genius, which is accompanied by the fact that the romantic poet John Keats would call «negative capability» of Shakespeare, his poetic vision — to see everything and does not detect its presence. Unique Shakespearean mystery that belongs to the individual and the time when the first private penetrates impersonality of existence, and great playwright, for centuries ahead created a portrait gallery of the new era, the secret is only one person — his own.
Shakespeare completes the process of creating a national culture and the English language; his work sums up the whole tragic era of the Renaissance in Europe. In the perception of future generations is an image of Shakespeare as a comprehensive genius, who at the beginnings of modern times it has created a gallery of human types and situations. Shakespeare to the present day form the basis of the world theater repertoire. Most of them were repeatedly put on screen for film and TV screen.
Pecularities of Shakespeare’s tragedies in literature
«ROMEO AND JULIET»
The tragedy of this in his lifetime Shakespeare was published three or four times — in 1597, 1599, 1609, respectively, and once again.The history of love between two young, ends tragically as a result of accidental fatal misunderstandings.
Shakespeare shows her passion to develop and enrich the action on the human personality.
Finally, when Romeo gets the false news of Juliet’s death, he was once again transformed. He feels that his life is over; he seemed to rise above himself and all others, to look at the world from the outside, from a greater height. Romeo gets the insight and wisdom, the detachment and objectivity, which are peculiar sometimes older people, many have experienced and thoughtful. Romeo is now beginning to understand the world better than before. He opened the forces guiding people. At this moment the supreme suffering and the highest clarity of thought Romeo, buying from an apothecary a poison called gold, which gives it a «poison worse» than the potion he had received. In the same way, under the influence of overwhelming feeling came over her grows in the play and Juliet. From gentle and naive girl, as it is shown at the beginning, it becomes ripe and soul of a woman going to do anything for his feelings, a genuine character. It breaks with his family, with their habits and environment of life for the beloved. In the name of love she put herself in great danger, when deciding to drink soporific drink. Finally, she fearlessly takes death to get away from life with Romeo.
It should be noted that Juliet throughout the play takes a lot more energy and initiative than Romeo, inventing a means to protect his love, struggling with his destiny or actively rushing to meet fate. After her, a young girl, much more difficult to break away from the family home, to escape from his father’s house than a young man, like Romeo, from the outset depicted emancipated, became isolated from parents and family environment.
Very interesting image of Count Paris — fiance of Juliet, appointed by her father. Shakespeare would have been easy to make it ugly, old man, being rude and sordid. Instead, he described Paris as a handsome and elegant young man, well-mannered, noble, sincere loving Juliet. In the enclosed fine idea. For all its apparent merits of Paris, if you compare it with Romeo, internally empty and soulless. No wonder the nurse says he «poured out like wax.» It does not fire Romeo feelings, all his words and movements are mediocre, devoid of significance. He mourns Juliet, believing that she was dead, and brings in the flowers the grave, but he was able to experience it. Paris the more went to as a beloved Rosalind, he would have surrounded its respectable and peaceful love than Juliet, for that love — it’s all life. Juliet is horrified at the thought of marriage with Paris, not because it was something bad, or oppose it, but only because she can only love one elected it forever — Romeo.
«Romeo and Juliet» — one of the plays of Shakespeare, which are most rich in colors. It has many different shades, from the cheerful smile to a wild despair, from tender love to fierce anger. But above all dominated by the love of life and faith in the victory of truth and goodness.
This tragedy — one of those creatures of Shakespeare, which not only caused a huge number of critical studies and evaluations, but also found long life in art.
King Lear: Fathers and Sons
The Legend of King Lear and his daughters belong to the most ancient traditions of the legendary UK.
King lear the aging king of Britain, decides to step down from the throne and divide his kingdom evenly among his three daughters. First, however, he puts his daughters through a test, asking each to tell him how much she loves him. Goneril and Regan, Lear’s older daughters, give their father flattering answers. But Cordelia, Lear’s youngest and favorite daughter, remains silent, saying that she has no words to describe how much she loves her father. Lear flies into a rage and disowns Cordelia. The king of France, who has courted Cordelia, says that he still wants to marry her even without her land, and she accompanies him to France without her father’s blessing.
Lear quickly learns that he made a bad decision. Goneril and Regan swiftly begin to undermine the little authority that Lear still holds. Unable to believe that his beloved daughters are betraying him, Lear slowly goes insane. He flees his daughters’ houses to wander on a heath during a great thunderstorm, accompanied by his Fool and by Kent, a loyal nobleman in disguise.
Meanwhile, an elderly nobleman named Gloucester also experiences family problems. His illegitimate son, Edmund, tricks him into believing that his legitimate son, Edgar, is trying to kill him. Fleeing the manhunt that his father has set for him, Edgar disguises himself as a crazy beggar and calls himself “Poor Tom.” Like Lear, he heads out onto the heath.
When the loyal Gloucester realizes that Lear’s daughters have turned against their father, he decides to help Lear in spite of the danger. Regan and her husband, Cornwall, discover him helping Lear, accuse him of treason, blind him, and turn him out to wander the countryside. He ends up being led by his disguised son, Edgar, toward the city of Dover, where Lear has also been brought
«King Lear» — the tragedy of the social and philosophical. Its theme is not only family relations, not only public order, but the nature of social relations in general. The essence of man, his place of living and the price in the society — that’s what this tragedy.
«Nature» is heavy suffering, and we see a confirmation of this in the picture of the complete collapse of all natural and social relations between people. King Lear banishes daughter, Gloucester — son; Goneril and Regan are rebelling against his father, his father Edgar condemns the terrible punishment; sisters Goneril and Regan are ready each change to her husband, and in a fit of jealous rivalry in the struggle for love Edmund Goneril poisons Reganu; citizens are fighting against the king, Cordelia goes to war against their homeland.
In «Othello» We saw the tragedy of the chaos in the soul of one man, in «King Lear» — the tragedy of the chaos that has engulfed the whole society. There is an opinion that in «King Lear» presents a society, living by patriarchal laws that are just beginning to crumble. In fact, as early as before us a world in which we preserved only the external signs of patriarchy. None of the actors do not live by the laws of the patriarchal system. None of them are not interested in general, no one cares about the state, everyone thinks only of himself. This is clearly shown by the example of the older daughters Lear, Goneril and Regane willing to let any cheating, just to get his share of royal lands and power. Selfishness, coupled with cruel cunning, immediately detects and illegitimate son of Gloucester — Edmond. But not only these people possessed predatory aspirations, deprived of patriarchal virtues of humility and obedience. The noble Earl of Kent finds no lesser independence, When boldly rebukes King of unreasonable anger against Cordelia. And she Cordelia capricious and stubborn, which is manifested in its unwillingness to humiliate their dignity not just flattery, but in general the public recognition of the feelings that she feels deeply intimate. She does not want to participate in the ritual flattery, instigated by King Lear, even if it is going to cost not only inheritance but also the love of Lear. In short, all the actors of the tragedy — individuals with a clear awareness of their personal interests and goals. Cordelia, Edgar, Kent, Fool King Lear constitute the camp of those who have not vulgar selfish and noble understanding of human rights. For them, there is the concept of loyalty, devotion, and their behavior are selfless. They also follow the «nature», but they have a noble conception of the nature and dignity of man. It is significant that they all become outcasts in the society. Cordelia Lear cursed, Kent he drove; Edgar betrayed curse Gloucester misled Edmond. As for the clown, he is in this society, rejected and deprived of civil rights has, by its very position. But these people drove despised as we see, are the only ones who kept the natural feelings of affection, love and duty. Kent disguise and changed his appearance, accompanied by a lyre in his exile, like the clown who does not leave his master in extreme distress. Cordelia learn about to recover his father’s royal rights. Edgar met his blinded father only thinks about how to ease his fate. For all that, although each of them shows dedication, they are deprived of the patriarchal spirit of obedience and servility.
In the course of the tragedy of action are found not only differences in the moral aspirations of its participants, divide them into two camps. We also see how the two polar world are formed. On one side of the world of wealth and power. There is an eternal bickering, and everyone in this world is ready to cut the throat of another. This is the world that they had built for themselves Goneril, Regan, Cornwall, Edmond. We have already met Shakespeare picture of the world in his dramas.
Another world — a world of outcasts. There are, first of Kent and Cordelia, then Edgar, King Lear, the Fool and finally Gloucester. Of these, Cordelia, who became the wife of the French king, the Exile is in name only and shall bear the burden of some moral suffering only. The rest of the cast to the bottom of life in the most literal sense of the word. They are destitute, thrown out of the old, familiar to their way of life, lost their homes, livelihoods and left to fend for themselves. But personal disasters do not harden their hearts, but rather exacerbate the sympathy for the suffering of others from those who used to be a kind and peculiar, and those who had previously been indifferent to the fate of others, give rise to a sense of brotherhood with all the destitute.
Two characters in the tragedy, one of which belongs to the world of power, and the other to the world of outcasts, first stand somewhat aloof from the struggle, and then in the end become the most active, and their share falls restore the honor of order and justice.
One of them — Albani. The circumstances are such that he did not immediately determine its place in the struggle between the two camps. He does not know all the vile plans and tricks his wife Goneril, and only at the end in front of him revealed that he was an instrument in its hands. When he learns the true nature of his wife and the whole mass of villainy, an unwitting accomplice to whom he was Albani decisive break with the world and becomes the man who restores order in the state.
Second — Edgar. Maligned brother, he was hiding and remained inactive until the injustice dealt only with him, but when he saw, as was done with Lear and his father, Edgar was filled with determination to fight. Case confronts him with Oswald, and he kills the arrogant court. Letter found on the body of the murdered them, reveals a conspiracy against Goneril and Edmund Albani. This document opens the eyes of Albany, and he learns that almost became a victim of his cunning traitor-wife. But the main goal of Edgar — to avenge his brother, who killed his father and wanted to destroy him. He calls Edmond to fight, and fight against him with lowered visor. There is something symbolic, like the fact that Hamlet killed his adversaries with their own weapons. After Edmond also fought against Edgar disguised, but it was dishonest disguise, because, plotting against his brother Edmond pretended to be his friend and protector. Although Edgar and fights with the face, but he fights with his brother in a fair fight and win it.
The tragedy is over.. There were many victims. Killing all who despised humanity in pursuit of imaginary good things of life, causing suffering and extermination stand in their way.
But Shakespeare, learned and revealed to us the greatest depth of suffering, does not want to leave us, leaving us without a glimmer of hope. The last words of the tragedy imbued with deep sorrow, but in their sound and courage:
«What a melancholy soul nor smitten,
Be persistent force times.
All passed the old, hard and inflexible.
We, the young, in order not to experience the »
The essence of the tragedy of Shakespeare always lies in the collision of two principles — the humanistic feelings.
According to Shakespeare, the fate of every human being is the result of the interaction of its nature and the surrounding circumstances. There are reflected the special sense of life, tragic, yet heroic, which is at the end of the Renaissance humanists occurs in a result of the destruction of their ideals under the pressure of reactionary forces. Hence the feeling of a world cataclysm, the collapse of all the foundations, the feeling that people wander along the edge of the abyss into which they can break at any moment and really frustrated. The heroic character of this pessimism is far from fatalistic despair. His dramas show the conflict between the individual and the surrounding society, which seeks to destroy that person.
Shakespeare has had an enormous influence on European literature. He becomes a model and teacher for all of the most innovative writers of the 19th century. Knowing him strongly reflected in the works of playwrights in various ways sought to create a national drama. Pushkin belongs to a series of remarkable statements about Shakespeare, whom he repeatedly referred in his discussion of the drama. For the first time we opened the true meaning of Shakespeare’s creativity in a number of articles and notes Belinsky, who laid the foundations for Russia in a truly scientific study of his works.
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